But still, that may be the problem. The video is probably OK, as you can see in VLC. It's just that Kaffeine, combined with your graphics driver, cannot display it properly. 534 is not a multiple of 16, 8 or even 4, and that can cause problems. Try changing the video output in Kaffeine (e.g. to plain, unaccelerated X11) and see if it helps.
Anyway, when you encode the video, you should always try to get some sane dimensions (multiples of 16 or 8), as the encoding will be more efficient, and you should not have problems like this on playback.
(BTW, Avidemux does not use external FFmpeg, it has its built-in copy.)